What is ‘Safeguarding Adults’?

It means protecting an adult’s right to live in safety, free from abuse and neglect.

Adult Safeguarding is for adults with ‘care and support needs’. The aims of Adult Safeguarding are to:

  • Prevent harm and reduce the risk of abuse or neglect.
  • Stop abuse or neglect wherever possible.
  • Support adults in making choices and having control about how they want to live.
  • Promote an approach that concentrates on improving life for the adults concerned.
  • Raise awareness with the public. This helps communities play their part in preventing and identifying abuse and neglect.
  • Raise awareness with professionals. This will support them to identify and responded to abuse and neglect.
  • Provide information and support in accessible ways. This can help people understand the different types of abuse. It can also support them to raise a concern about someone’s safety or wellbeing.
  • Address what has caused the abuse or neglect.

Please click here for a One Minute Guide on ‘Care & Support Needs’

Section 42 of the Care Act 2014 states that safeguarding enquiries should be made where:

  • a person has needs for care and support;
  • is experiencing, or at risk of, abuse or neglect; and
  • as a result of their care and support needs, is unable to protect him or herself against the abuse or neglect, or the risk of it.

They may be a person who:

  • is elderly and frail due to ill health, physical disability or cognitive impairment;
  • has a learning disability
  • has a physical disability and/or a sensory impairment
  • has mental health needs, including dementia
  • has a long-term illness or condition
  • misuses substances or alcohol
  • is a carer (family member/friend) and is subject to abuse
  • does not have capacity to make a decision and is in need of care and support

Types of Abuse and Neglect

Types of Abuse

There are several types of abuse, including:

  • Financial abuse. This can be things like misusing, withholding or taking someone’s money.
  • Domestic Abuse, such as; hitting someone, locking them in a room or pushing them. It is not always physical, and includes coercive and controlling behaviour.
  • Psychological abuse. This can be someone subjecting or exposing another person to behaviour that may result in psychological trauma.
  • Emotional Abuse, such as; a person may be being bullied or humiliated.

Types of Neglect

There are many types of neglect, including:

  • Acts of omission. This can be when a professional fails to provide something they are supposed to, for example not providing access to glasses, hearing aids etc.
  • Self-neglect, such as lack of self-care to an extent that it threatens personal health and safety. 
  • Physical neglect. This can mean someone does not receive the necessary food, medication, or that they need.
  • Emotional Neglect. This can mean someone does not receive the necessary emotional support and encouragement.

Modern Slavery

  • Human trafficking
  • Forced labour
  • Domestic servitude
  • Sexual exploitation, such as escort work, prostitution and pornography
  • Debt bondage – being forced to work to pay off debts that they never will be able to

Making Safeguarding Personal

What is Making Safeguarding Personal?

Making Safeguarding Personal (MSP) enables safeguarding to be done with, not to, people – ‘no decision about me, without me’.

MSP is an initiative which aims to develop a person-centred and outcome focused approach to safeguarding work. The adult concerned must always be at the centre of adult safeguarding enquiries, and their wishes and views sought at the earliest opportunity. This short film, ‘Risking Happiness’is a good example of how individuals thoughts and wishes can sometimes be overlooked during safeguarding, and highlights the negative effect this has on the individual (Gloucestershire CCG and Gloucestershire County Council).

When considering an individual’s wishes and thoughts, you must also consider:

Positive Risk Taking

As individuals we all have the ability & choice to take risks. The principle of making an ‘unwise decision’ is enshrined in the Mental Capacity Act 2005.

Supported Decision Making 

A Care Act Advocate (CAA) must be appointed if the adult has significant difficulty following the process and has no family or friends to support them. If they lack capacity, an Independent Mental Capacity Advocate (IMCA) must be instructed to support them through the safeguarding intervention. Supported decision making focuses on the outcomes the person wishes to achieve, what is working in their lives and what is not. There should be a mechanism to clearly guide and record the ‘conversation’ about choice and risk.

Freedom from Undue Influence.

A person might decline an intervention because of undue influence or coercion, in which case, such a choice should not be taken at face value. Support may be required to help a person make a decision free from such influence.

Involving the Individual

When evaluating whether MSP was properly applied, recommended questions for the individual about their experience of the safeguarding journey are:

Did you understand why people did what they did to try and keep you safe?

Do you feel listened to during conversations and meetings with people about helping you feel safe?

How happy are you with the end result of what people did to keep you safe?

Do you feel safer now because of the help from people dealing with your concern? 

What Does this mean for Safeguarding?

MSP is about engaging with people about the outcomes they want at the beginning and middle of working with them, and then ascertaining the extent to which those outcomes were realised at the end. MSP means adult safeguarding:

  • is person-led
  • is outcome-focused
  • engages the person and enhances involvement,
  • choice and control
  • Improves quality of life, wellbeing and safety
  • shifts the focus from process to people

Making Safeguarding Personal:

  • Is NOT to be seen in the context of a formal safeguarding enquiry (Care Act, 2014, Section 42     enquiry) 
  • Is NOT about a focus on personalised front line practice

The Care Act 2014 guidance requires adult safeguarding practice to be person led and outcome focused, incorporating MSP as the recommended approach to safeguarding alongside the 6 safeguarding principles: 

6 SAFEGUARDING PRINCIPLES

Empowerment – presumption of person led decisions and informed consent.

Prevention – it is better to take action before harm occurs.

Proportionality – proportionate and least intrusive response appropriate to the risk presented. 

Protection – support and represent for those in greatest need.

Partnership – local solutions through services working in their communities. Communities have a part in preventing detecting and reporting abuse and neglect.

Accountability – Accountability and transparency in delivering safeguarding.


Resources to support Making Safeguarding Personal:

The Local Government Association (LGA) has a suite of resources which describe what ‘good’ might look like in MSP for a range of organisations, and promote ownership of this agenda within and across all organisations:

MSP Toolkit

The MSP toolkit has been updated and refreshed to reflect a greater emphasis on strengths-based practice across adult social care. The new toolkit is a web-based resource that includes narrative around specific areas of practice, tools and case examples to support learning and development. The resources can be used individually or built into learning and development activities within organisations.

Click here for the MSP Toolkit.

Case Studies:

Nine case studies of practice in relation to MSP have been collated; this resource is an update of the previous case study resource. There are a limited number of case studies in the resource and we would encourage local areas to send in their examples to CHIP@local.gov.uk entitled ‘ MSP Case Study’, by September 2020. We plan to publish a further collection of case studies in Autumn 2020.

Click here to view Case Studies.

Myths and Realities

The briefing addresses misconception about Making Safeguarding Personal, which is not just about safeguarding practice but also about prevention, and strategic as well as operational safeguarding. It supports and promotes relationship and strength- based approaches in practice. The briefing is aimed at front line practitioners and operational managers in all organisations that have a role in safeguarding adults. It is aimed at leaders at all levels and local councillors. It can also be used by anyone interested or involved in safeguarding adults because ‘safeguarding is everyone’s business’. This can be used as a prompt for discussion in teams or partnerships, in workshops or conversations.

Click here to view Myths and Realities.

Podcasts

Esi Hardy and Michael Preston-Shoot have recorded a series of Podcasts which explore some of the myths around Making Safeguarding Personal. Together they combine lived experience with practitioner experience to begin to make sense of what it means to make safeguarding personal for everyone. The 11 episodes are a useful resource for people to listen to on their own, or to use as a group discussion or learning events.

Click here to view Podcast.

A further podcast has messages from research which explored experiences of people who have been victimised because of their mental health status.

Click here to view Podcast.